Corresponding Author

Samantha Geraldine De los Santos
Community Innovations Studies Center at the College of Public Affairs and Development, University of the Philippines Los Banos

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Adaptive Capacity of Indigenous Peoples to Changing Climate: The case of the Aytas of Floridablanca, Pampanga, Philippines

  •   Received: 17 August 2016 / Accepted: 04 July 2017/ Published online: 26 July 2017


  • Typhoons, prolonged drought, and excessive rain affect the Aytas severely, but typhoons cause the most damage to natural resources.
  • The medium-level Household Adaptive Capacity Index (HACI) (0.49) of the Aytas indicates that the five assets of sustainable livelihood must be improved simultaneously through various identified strategies.
  • Long-term solutions (e.g., early warning systems) formulated in consideration of the Floridablanca Ayta Indigenous Cultural Community’s indigenous knowledge and available assets are recommended.


The livelihoods of Aytas of Floridablanca, Pampanga, Philippines are dependent on natural resources, which are prone to climate change impacts. To assess their adaptive capacity, this paper analyzed the different resources available in their community using the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach Framework. The five livelihood assets (human, natural, financial, social, and physical) of the Aytas were accounted for and used as indicators for the Household Adaptive Capacity Index (HACI).

The resulting HACI was 0.49, indicating a medium-level adaptive capacity, limited by poor infrastructure, high dependence on agriculture for income, high poverty incidence of 72 percent, low level of education, and social capital bounded mostly in interactions. Also, farming income of the Aytas was highly seasonal and vulnerable to typhoons, prolonged drought, and excessive rains. 

Having limited livelihood assets, Aytas will find it difficult to adapt to climate change-related impacts. As such, they need support to enhance their adaptive capacity. This paper recommended that programs and projects, which enhance their adaptive capacity, be formulated in consideration of the existing indigenous knowledge, values, and belief systems, as well as their assets. 



Indigenous Peoples, Climate Change, Adaptive Capacity, Sustainable Livelihood

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