How can I publish a manuscript?

Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided through the creation of your account and uploading of your files. Learn More

How do I review a manuscript?

Simply register as a reviewer and accept review assignments of manuscripts relevant to your field of expertise. Learn More

What processes does a manuscript go through?

A manuscript goes through a number of stages to ensure it adheres to journal requirements and standards. Learn More

  1. : First-timers to the CDD Journal must register first by clicking .

  2. CREATE YOUR PROFILE: Once you have registered, complete your profile through the My Account page here. Log in to the website and click on the icon next to your login name to drop down the My Account link.

  3. FORMAT YOUR MANUSCRIPT: Before submitting your manuscript, make sure to follow all formatting guidelines and requirements. See formatting guidelines below.

  4. SUBMIT MANUSCRIPT: When you are ready to submit your manuscript, log in to the website and choose Submit Manuscript from the drop down list.

    • You will be asked to fill-in required information about your paper (see formatting guidelines and requirements).
    • Once you’ve accomplished the online form, you will be asked to declare any potential Conflict of Interest (COI). (For more information on COI, check out the Policies section.)
    • Finally, you will be asked to upload your files. It should be a zip file containing your manuscript (.doc and .pdf versions) and, if applicable, high resolution images used in your manuscript. 

Submission to the Journal is an online process. Please read the guidelines carefully and adhere to the prescribed formatting below.



The Journal subscribes to the APA 6th edition format, particularly for headings, citations, and references. These are further detailed in the corresponding sections.


Word count


The maximum word count of 5,000 words excludes the title, abstract, highlights, keywords, and references. The following are included in the word count: figure captions, table titles, and table contents.


Line Numbers


Use continuous line numbers in the manuscript. It should start at the title and end on the last line of the references section.


Font and spacing


Use 12 pt. Times New Roman as the font size and style (including headings), and set the line spacing at 1.0 pt.




Submissions should adopt the following heading formats to subdivide the sections of the paper:

Level 1 – Centered, bold, title case

Level 2 – Left flush, bold, title case

Level 3 – Left flush, bold, italicized, title case

Level 4 – In text with period, bold, sentence case

Level 5 – in text with period, bold, italicized, sentence case


Level 1 Heading

Level 2  Sub-Heading

Level 3  Sub-Heading

Level 4 sub-heading. Lorem ipsum dolor sit met, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Aenean commodo ligula eget dolor. Aenean massa. Cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Donec quam felis, ultricies nec, pellentesque eu, pretium quis, sem.

Level 5 sub-heading. Lorem ipsum dolor sit met, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Aenean commodo ligula eget dolor. Aenean massa. Cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Donec quam felis, ultricies nec, pellentesque eu, pretium quis, sem.





Be concise and informative. The title is often used in information-retrieval systems and should be no more than 25 words in length.  Using abbreviations or words that serve no purpose is discouraged. Should you have a subtitle, place it directly below the main title, italicized and centered. Use APA style format.


Do not include the name and details of the authors in the manuscript. The uploaded manuscript will be directly accessed for double-blind peer review.


The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions, and must be able to stand alone. This should not exceed 200 words. References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.


Highlights are mandatory for this journal with a maximum of 100 word count to be used in 3-5 bullet points. It should concisely highlight the core findings, significance of the study, results, and major implications.


Provide a maximum of 6 keywords using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations; only those firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.


Main Body


State the objectives and provide an adequate background while avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Materials and methods

Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced.  Methods already published should be indicated by a reference.  Only relevant modifications should be described.


Results should be clear and concise.


This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.


The main conclusions of the study must be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone.


Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references rather than on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, funding, etc.).


Reference formatting

Referencing must follow the APA format. Refer to this link to learn more about the APA style:

Citation in text

Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text.

Reference links

When copying references, please be careful as they may contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged. Please use this format for DOI: 

Supporting Elements

Math formulae

Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics.

When using formulae with exponential notation, use “exp” followed by the numerical value.  

When displaying equations consecutively separate from the text, number them consecutively.


Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the manuscript. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, using this feature is highly encouraged.

Figures and other Graphic Elements

Place all proportionately-sized figures next to the relevant text in the manuscript. Colored illustrations are preferred and are to be numbered according to their sequence in the text. A separate folder for all figures (i.e. graphs, charts, images, etc.) should also be provided (may be compressed into a zipped file).


EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.

TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi and make sure that gradients, textures and patterns are distinguishable enough even for printing (test print your figures as a way of checking).

TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.

TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.

Figure captions

Ensure that each figure has a caption placed right under. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.Use Times New Roman, 12pt, single spacing for all figure titles and captions. Citations used in caption should be filed under references.


Please submit tables as editable text (in a separate file as indicated above) and not as images. Tables should be placed next to the relevant text in the manuscript. Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text and place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in them do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Please avoid using vertical rules. General font and spacing also applies in the table format. Only use horizontal border for the table. Citations used in table titles should also be filed under references.

Unit of Measurement

The CDDJ uses the SI unit as the unit of measurement for the whole publication. Refer to this link for more information on the SI unit of measurement:

Submit two versions of the document (one PDF file and one .doc or .docx). Include figures in one zip file with maximum size of 5mb.

Note: Please consider the general public at all times when writing the manuscript. Kindly laymanize your writing styles as much as possible.

  • For regular issues (original research), download here[Updated as of March 3, 2017]
  • For special issues (original research), download here. [Updated as of March 6, 2017]
  • For perspective articles, download here. [Updated as of March 6, 2017]

  • Make sure the manuscript you have been asked to review truly matches your expertise. Accept review assignments only if you are competent to review the manuscript.
  • Make sure that you have enough time to review. Reviewers are only given three weeks to finish a review. You may be invited to review more than one manuscript at a time, hence only accept assignments you are confident to finish within the given time. Should you be unable to submit the review before the deadline, the CDDJ should be informed immediately.
  • Avoid a potential conflict of interest. Conflict of interest exists when the reviewer has a personal, professional, or financial connection with the author(s). Read more on conflict of interest.
  • The task of a reviewer is to evaluate manuscripts in a confidential, fair and equitable way. He/she must use his/her best endeavors to achieve this, follow any instructions given by the CDD Journal to this end and deliver a constant and high quality of work.
  • Evaluation work requires the reviewer to complete the task by providing comments/recommendations on proposals, and submit these through the Submit Review page. Depending on your comments/recommendations, we may also invite you to review the revised manuscript.

  • The reviewer shall apply to the best of his/her abilities, his/her professional skills, knowledge and ethics, in accordance with the guidelines and time schedules provided by the CDD Journal.

  • Carrying out the work is subject to the reviewer’s availability and willingness to contribute in the review process.

  • The work will be undertaken voluntarily and without payment as a public service and in pursuit of science.

  • The reviewer acts as an independent person. He/she is deemed to work in a personal capacity and, in performing the task, does not represent any organization.

  • If for some reason the reviewer is not able to fulfill his/her obligations for an accepted work, the CDD Journal should be informed immediately.

  • The reviewer may not delegate another person to carry out the work.

  • The reviewer will not be able to access the full manuscript until the assignment has been accepted.

The reviewer shall inform the CDD Journal immediately if he/she discovers any disqualifying or potential conflict of interest with any submitted manuscript that he/she is asked to review.

A disqualifying conflict of interest may exist if a reviewer:

  • was involved in the preparation of the manuscript;

  • stands to benefit directly should the manuscript be published;

  • has a close family relationship with any of the authors;

  • is a director, trustee or partner of author’s organization;

  • is in any other situation that compromises his or her ability to evaluate the proposal impartially.

A potential conflict of interest may exist, even in cases not covered by the clear disqualifying conflicts indicated above, if a reviewer:

  • was a colleague of the applicant organizations in a proposal within the previous three years;

  • is involved in a contract or research collaboration with an applicant organization, or had been so in the previous three years;

  • is in any other situation that could cast doubt on his or her ability to evaluate the proposal impartially, or that could reasonably appear to do so in the eyes of an external third party.

The reviewer:

  • Will be held personally responsible for maintaining the confidentiality of any documents or electronic files made available in relation to completing the review;

  • May not discuss any manuscript or part of it with others;

  • Are not allowed to disclose any detail of the review and their outcomes or of any manuscript submitted for evaluation without the express written approval of the CDD Journal;

  • Are required at all times to comply strictly with any rules defined by the CDD Journal for ensuring the confidentiality of the review process and its outcomes. Failure to comply with these rules may result in exclusion from the immediate and future monitoring and review processes, without prejudice to penalties that may derive from other applicable regulations.

  • May not show the contents of manuscripts to third parties (e.g. colleagues, students, etc.) without the express written approval of the CDD Journal. It is strictly forbidden for reviewers to make contact with authors or any other person about their advice on the manuscript.
  • Register only one e-mail account per person unless you have two or more roles (as author, as reviewer, etc.)

  • To change registered e-mail, go to My Account

  • Personal information are kept confidential

  • Materials lifted from the website should be cited properly

  • Manuscript has not been published and is not under consideration for publishing elsewhere

  • No part of the manuscripts is plagiarized

  • Publication has been approved by all co-authors and funding agencies, if any

  • Manuscripts may be withdrawn provided it is done prior the pre-production stage

  • It is the author’s responsibility to assure that no part of the manuscript has been plagiarized

  • CDD Journal may perform plagiarism check at its discretion

  • Any manuscript found to contain plagiarized contents will automatically be rejected

  • Conflict of interest exists when the reviewer has a personal, professional, or financial connection with the author(s)

  • Authors are required to declare all potential conflict of interest relating to the present and the past three years

  • CDD Journal implements double-blind review to prevent conflict of interest

  • Reviewers are encouraged to reject review assignment of articles they believe are possible subject of conflict of interest

  • The author maintains full ownership of works published in the CDD Journal

  • Submission to CDD Journal means that the author agrees to share the article online for free

  • CDD Journal reserves the right to share links to the published works in any of its online media platforms

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