Corresponding Author

Nicole Ann H. Cruz       
Department of Social Development Services, College of Human Ecology, University of the Philippines Los Banos

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Volume 5, Issue 2, September 2023

Building Back Better After Disasters: Enhancing Community Resilience Through In-City Resettlement in Valenzuela City, Philippines

  •   Received: 14 December 2022 / Accepted: 16 January 2023/ Published online: 29 September 2023


  • In-city resettlement increased resilience of resettled households based on the community resilience framework of the IFRC
  • Resilience indicators in terms of knowledge, health, infrastructure and services, organization, livelihoods, and connectedness significantly improved
  • In-city resettlement facilitated local government delivery of social services
  • Multi-stakeholder partnerships, participatory management, and in-city resettlement modality are key contributors to building back better


Build Back Better (BBB) is a recovery process that aims to make disaster-affected communities more resilient. This study analyzed the resilience of disaster-affected individuals relocated in an in-city resettlement project using the community resilience framework of the International Federation of the Red Cross (IFRC) in the context of BBB. It contributes to understanding BBB in view of limited case studies of in-city resettlement. Employing mixed methods research design, data were gathered through key informant interviews, household surveys, documents, and observation. Results show that relocation significantly improved community resilience in terms of knowledge, health, infrastructure and services, connectedness, organization, and economic opportunities. Psychological support is lacking and mechanisms to manage the community’s natural assets need to be devised in view of spatial limitations. Good practices conforming to BBB principles include structural design improvement, hazard-based land-use planning, participatory approaches, provision of various services, adoption of a multi-partnership model, economic regeneration, and proper implementation through stakeholder management and disaster management legislation. Results indicate positive contributions of local government-managed in-city resettlement to community resilience when BBB principles are considered. Stakeholders in disaster governance can learn from the good practices identified towards better post-disaster recovery in line with SDG 11 on sustainable cities and communities.



Build Back Better, Community resilience, Disaster governance, In-city resettlement, Post-disaster recovery

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